By Jay R., Ph.D. Hoffman, Nicholas A., Ph.D. Ratamess
Ebook by way of Hoffman, Jay R., Ph.D., Ratamess, Nicholas A., Ph.D.
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Extra resources for A Practical Guide to Developing Resistance-Training Programs
The number of fibers in a muscle is genetically determined. However, scientists examining the effect of resistance training on muscle growth have suggested that high-intensity resistance training may cause an increase in the number of muscle fibers, known as muscle hyperplasia, based on animal research. Interestingly, sport scientists have reported that elite bodybuilders have a greater number of muscle fibers than trained control subjects. These investigators suggested that the greater fiber number seen in the bodybuilders may be attributed to the years of high-intensity resistance training, but subsequent studies were unable to confirm those results.
This chapter provides an understanding of the acute physiological response to resistance exercise, as well as the type of physiological adaptations that may result from prolonged resistance training. Further discussion focuses on the influence that resistance training has on specific performance components of fitness. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Resistance Training A common goal for many individuals participating in resistance-training programs is to increase muscle size and strength. Therefore, the adaptation of primary focus for these individuals is the change seen in the neuromuscular system.
Unilateral vs. , cross education and bilateral deficit). Cross education refers to strength gained in the nontrained limb during unilateral training. The strength increase in the untrained limb may range up to 22 percent and is thought to occur predominately via neural adaptations. Bilateral deficit refers to the fact that the strength produced by both limbs contracting bilaterally is smaller than the sum of the limbs contracting unilaterally. Unilateral training (although it increases bilateral strength) can contribute to a greater bilateral deficit, whereas bilateral training reduces the bilateral deficit.