By K. Hamblin
This ebook explores the adoption of 'active getting older' guidelines by means of EU15 countries and the impression on older peoples' paintings and retirement coverage innovations. guidelines tested contain unemployment merits, lively labour industry regulations, partial pension receipt, pension rules, early retirement and incentives for deferral.
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Additional info for Active Ageing in the European Union: Policy Convergence and Divergence
Incentives to remain in employment (European Commission, 2006). for an extended period. There are also de jure early withdrawal schemes in the form of early retirement pensions. e. restricting access to these routes through adjustment to eligibility criteria, making them less attractive through the application of penalties as well as 40 Active Ageing in the European Union their closure represent the de facto recommodiﬁcation of labour through the removal of alternatives to paid employment. In addition, policies designed to reintegrate and retain older individuals in the labour market such as tailored ALMPs and incentives to defer pension receipt are also deﬁned in this book as policies aimed at recommodifying the labour of older individuals (however, these are de jure recommodiﬁcation policies).
At the macro-level, early exit and retirement policies do not have wholly positive effects in that they create non-wage labour costs which hamper competitiveness, and if unemployment remains persistent, their existence results in increased social security expenditure (Ebbinghaus, 2001). Therefore aside from demographic ageing, an additional pressure on welfare arrangements is the increasingly early exit from the labour market, facilitated by state and occupational early retirement and exit schemes.
Fischer (2003: 67) argues “by separating populations into the deserving and undeserving groups, politicians are 36 Active Ageing in the European Union able to legitimize the bestowal of beneﬁcial regulations or subsidies on the former and punishment or neglect on the latter”. The provision of early exit schemes with eligibility criteria such as contribution thresholds or employment in certain industries similarly divide older workers into deserving and undeserving. Phillipson (1982) argues it is those older individuals in lower socio-economic stratum that are at the most risk of being classiﬁed as ‘undeserving’ and marginalised.