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12], the following comments are made in this context: “For existing plants, the term ‘severe accidents” is widely associated with significant melting of the core and large releases of radionuclides from the reactor vessel. Because of the characteristics and features of MHTGRs ... and in particular the low core power density and high temperature capability of the coated fuel particles, no scenarios involving extensive melting of the core are apparent, even for very low probabilities/highly hypothetical events.

Many of these designs may adopt new design approaches to address specific external events. For example, for a reactor coupled with a hydrogen generating plant in close proximity, a major consideration could be events originating in the hydrogen generating plant. One may also visualize that in a situation of large scale of deployment, some NPPs may need to be deployed in regions currently considered inappropriate from siting considerations. Special design measures for the design of such plants from external event considerations may then need to be developed.

AHWR, ACR-700, IRIS, ABWR-II, SWR 1000) available to cool the reactor core without depending on availability of externally powered pumps within the containment or elsewhere. In this context, several passive systems enable prolonged grace period to the operator during which the reactor is maintained in a safe state without any operator intervention. g. natural convection, radiation, and conduction cooling). This feature too, is highly relevant for some extreme external events when, on account of possible devastation outside the protected reactor building, it is quite likely that all the external sources of cooling water, electricity, and instrumentation air and ventilation 30 system become non-available.

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