Download Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton PDF

By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton

This e-book experiences present wisdom at the dating among aerosols and precipitation attaining the Earth's floor. It features a record of ideas that can support to farther boost wisdom during this area.

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In a towering cumulus cloud with depth of $10 km and updraft speeds of $15 m sÀ1, the Lagrangian time scale is tp=10,000 m/15 m sÀ1 ^ 660 s ^ 11 min, only slightly longer than shallow cumulus clouds. The main advantage that a towering cumulus cloud experiences over that of a shallow cloud in forming precipitation particles is associated with the greater amounts of condensate that is produced in deeper clouds. Because precipitation growth by collection is a non-linear function of the amount of condensate in a cloud (Kessler 1969; Manton and Cotton 1977), precipitation growth proceeds quite rapidly in cumulonimbus clouds relative to low liquid water content cumulus clouds.

If the droplet at A should grow slightly, the supersaturation adjacent to it would increase above the ambient supersaturation, and therefore the droplet would evaporate back to point A. If the droplet at A should evaporate slightly, the supersaturation adjacent to it would decrease below the ambient supersaturation, and the droplet would grow by condensation back to A in Fig. 5. Hence the solution droplet at A is in stable equilibrium with the ambient supersaturation. If the ambient supersaturation were to change a little, the location of A in 2 Principles of Cloud and Precipitation Formation 21 Fig.

R. Cotton 2 Principles of Cloud and Precipitation Formation 17 by the ascent of a cloud parcel from cloud base to cloud top. Instead, it is determined by the vertical displacement of a parcel of air as it transects the cloud over the mountain barrier. Vertical ascent is not the only way of lowering the temperature and the water vapour saturation pressure. Cloud top radiative cooling can lead to destabilization of cloudy layers. This is the main driving force for marine stratocumulus clouds. It is also important in fogs, stratus clouds and cirrus clouds.

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