By meshorer ya'akov
Exam of the cash of historic Israel from forty B.C.E. via four B.C.E.
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Additional info for Ancient Jewish Coinage Vol. 2: Herod the Great through Bar Cochba
Literacy and orality 24 23 equate. 25 Particularly interesting work has been done on the Middle Ages. Clanchy's fascinating study From Memory to Written Record (1979) shows, among other things, how the use of writing for certain kinds of proof and documents was not by any means obvious or immediate. It was the predominant attitudes to the written word that did much to determine the place of writing in medieval England. These attitudes changed, but in a culture which still relied very largely on the spoken word and material objects as proof or memorial, writing had first to be accepted as better proof.
F u r t h e r critique in: H a i n s w o r t h 1968: 2 3 - 3 2 , 7 2 - 3 (analogy from the noun-epithets is inadequate); also Lord 1953: 127 a n d elsewhere, w h o stresses the creation of formulaic expressions. See also Rosenmeyer 1965; Russo 1968 a n d 1966; Hoekstra 1964; Finkelberg 1986. Pope 1985: counting Iliad and Odyssey separately. See also Richardson 1987 on similes and rare words; Griffin 1986 on speeches; Russo 1968 on Homer 'against his tradition'. M. Parry 1971: 313 attempted to deal with the problem.
In the field of Homeric research we can now discern two main trends. On the one hand, the formulaic theory of Parry and Lord is being refined and extended to other oral poetry (based mainly in America, this trend in scholarship amounts to a school of thought adhering to 'the oral theory of composition');8 formulae and themes are the focus, poetic individuality denied. On the other hand, after a period in which the Parry thesis was absorbed and generally accepted, there has been what might be called an aesthetic reaction, and scholars have returned again to the literary qualities of Homer.