Download Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X by Walter Tape PDF

By Walter Tape

Published via the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Special courses Series.

Atmospheric halos are noticeable phenomena of a lot attractiveness and fascination. From our earliest recognized files, relationship from the Sumerian-Babylonian tradition of 4-5,000 years in the past, to fashionable researchers, halos have saved us having a look skyward. brought on by mild refracted via ice crystals floating within the surroundings, they could look at approximately any time and position. What do the ice crystals appear like, specially those who make the unique "odd radius" halos? what's the worth of the elusive perspective x, so severe to deciding on the shapes of those crystals? What halo screens will we comprehend good and what monitors will we no longer comprehend at all?

This ebook responds to such questions, and extra, with a multifaceted view of halo technological know-how. specialists and newbies alike will locate this ebook the definitive source at the topic. gains include:

  • The "how to" in halo remark and photography
  • Carefully analyzed photographs of infrequent halo monitors and pyramidal ice crystals
  • The early heritage of halo science
  • Elegant new factors of the way halos form
  • Authoritative dialogue of wierd radius halos

We invite you to gaze up and observe the realm of halos.

Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–8):
Chapter 2 Ice Crystal Gallery (pages 9–20):
Chapter three The Beginnings of Halo technological know-how (pages 21–32):
Chapter four How Halos shape (pages 33–42):
Chapter five Halo Simulations (pages 43–50):
Chapter 6 Halos From Prismatic Crystals (pages 51–64):
Chapter 7 extraordinary Radius Halos are genuine (pages 65–70):
Chapter eight unusual Radius round Halos (pages 71–89):
Chapter nine a few Crystallography (pages 91–100):
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Ice Crystals (pages 101–112):
Chapter eleven the quest for perspective x (pages 113–128):
Chapter 12 Refraction Halos and Wedge perspective (pages 129–132):
Chapter thirteen The Spin Vector (pages 133–136):
Chapter 14 A User's consultant to Halo Poles (pages 137–144):
Chapter 15 bizarre Radius Plate Arcs (pages 145–164):
Chapter sixteen strange Radius Column Arcs (pages 165–178):
Chapter 17 unusual Radius Parry Arcs (pages 179–182):
Chapter 18 different Wedge Angles? (pages 183–194):

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Extra resources for Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X

Sample text

This halo happens t o be t h e circumzenith arc. T h e responsible crystals are oriented plates, t h a t is, plate crystals with their axes vertical. 1 but seen from a slightly different viewpoint, one for w h i c h the halos can be more easily depicted on the celestial sphere. {Top right) Sky filled w i t h crystals having shapes and orientations the same as at top left. An outgoing ray from one of the crystals reaches the observer. {Bottom left) Sun point S and halo point H on the celestial sphere.

Now two spheres are 40 ATMOSPHERIC HALOS exit normal entry normal FIGURE 4 . 7 Light point diagram for the circumzenith arc, s h o w i n g the formation of the arc. 1. T h e halo point H is found by projecting the sun point S to the outer sphere, thus getting R, and then projecting R to the inner sphere, getting H. See text. {Right) Same but for many different rotational orientations of the crystal about the vertical. T h e halo point traces out the circumzenith arc C Z . 31, the refractive indices of air and ice.

7. T h e crystals obviously have much smaller tilts; t h e dots for t h e column orientations are barely distinguishable from t h e equator, and t h e dots for t h e plate orientations are clustered tightly about t h e n o r t h pole. 6 is an all-sky simulation of halos due t o oriented columns. T h e simulation contains 20,000 halo points, each of which arises from a ray p a t h through some crystal. T h e computer can remember t h e ray p a t h for each halo point a n d can be instructed t o sort and count ray paths, t h u s showing which types of ray p a t h s were responsible for t h e halos.

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