Download Boilers, Evaporators, and Condensers by Sadik Kakaç PDF

By Sadik Kakaç

This updated reference covers the thermal layout, operation and upkeep of the 3 significant elements in business heating and air con structures together with fossil fuel-fired boilers, waste warmth boilers and air-con evaporators. one of the distinguishing positive factors coated are: the various sorts of elements in use and the beneficial properties and relative advantages of every, overviews of the main technical sections of the booklet, with urged ways to layout in line with commercial event, case stories and examples of exact engineering difficulties, layout equipment and systems in line with present business perform within the usa, Russia, China and Europe with information charts, tables and thermal-hydraulic correlations for layout incorporated, and numerous methods to layout in response to adventure within the artwork of business procedure apparatus layout.

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In Fig. 9 G is the center of gravity and B is the center of buoyancy. If the body in (a) is tipped to the position in (b), a couple Wd restores the body toward position (a) and thus the body is stable. If B were below G and the body displaced, it would move until B becomes above G. Thus stability requires that G is below B. Floating bodies may be stable even though the center of buoyancy B is below the center of gravity G. The center of buoyancy generally changes position when a floating body tips because of the changing shape of the displaced liquid.

Tillner-Roth and H. D. Baehr, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 23 (5), 657–730 (1994). 15 K ϭ Ϫ40ЊC. a Thermophysical Properties of Fluids 23 Table 15 Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerant 134a P (bar) t (ЊC) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Sat. 841 Note. ; Pr ϭ Prandtl number. 943 15 Sat. 612 — — — — Figure 4 Compressibility factor of Refrigerant 134a. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Figure 5 Enthalpy–log pressure diagram for Refrigerant 134a. 476 v ϭ specific volume (m3 / kg); h ϭ specific enthalpy (MJ / kg); s ϭ specific entropy (kJ / kg ⅐ K); cp ϭ specific heat at constant pressure (kJ / kg ⅐ K); ƒ ϭ saturated liquid; g ϭ saturated vapor.

C) Crit. P (bar) Crit. p. (ЊC) Crit. P (bar) Crit. 1 76 5. p. (ЊC) Crit. P (bar) Crit. p. (ЊC) Crit. P (bar) Crit. 6 a Refrigerant numbers in some cases are tentative and subject to revision. Compositions rounded to nearest weight percent. Based on data supplied by M. O. McLinden, NIST, Boulder, CO, PCR Chemicals, Gainesville, FL, G. H. Thomson, DIPPR, Bartlesville, OK, and literature sources. 97 — a 250 Dashes indicate inaccessible states. 7 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids 43 Table 27 Ideal Gas Sensible Enthalpies (kJ / kg ⅐ mol) of Common Products of Combustiona,b T (K) 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 Substance CO CO2 H2O( g) NO NO2 N2 O2 SO2 Ϫ2858 Ϫ2276 Ϫ1692 Ϫ1110 Ϫ529 Ϫ3414 Ϫ2757 Ϫ2080 Ϫ1384 Ϫ667 Ϫ3280 Ϫ2613 Ϫ1945 Ϫ1277 Ϫ608 Ϫ2950 Ϫ2345 Ϫ1749 Ϫ1148 Ϫ547 Ϫ3494 Ϫ2803 Ϫ2102 Ϫ1390 Ϫ668 Ϫ2855 Ϫ2270 Ϫ1685 Ϫ1105 Ϫ525 Ϫ2860 Ϫ2279 Ϫ1698 Ϫ1113 Ϫ529 Ϫ3736 Ϫ3008 Ϫ2266 Ϫ1508 Ϫ719 54 638 1221 1805 2389 2975 3562 4152 4642 5334 5929 7427 8941 10475 12020 13590 15175 16780 18400 20030 21690 23350 25030 26720 28430 30140 31870 33600 35340 37090 38850 40610 42380 44156 45940 47727 49520 51320 53120 54930 67 822 1594 2383 3187 4008 4841 5689 6550 7424 8314 10580 12915 15310 17760 20270 22820 25410 28040 30700 33410 36140 38890 41680 44480 47130 50160 53030 55910 58810 61710 64800 67580 70530 73490 76460 79440 82430 85430 88440 63 736 1411 2088 2768 3452 4138 4828 5522 6221 6920 8695 10500 12325 14185 16075 17990 19945 21920 23940 25980 28060 30170 32310 34480 36680 38900 41130 43450 45770 48100 50460 52840 55240 57680 60130 62610 65100 67610 70140 54 652 1248 1847 2444 3042 3641 4247 4849 5054 6058 7589 9146 10720 12310 13890 15550 17200 18860 20540 22230 23940 25650 27380 29120 30870 32630 34400 36170 37950 39730 41520 43320 45120 46930 48740 50560 52380 54200 56020 67 813 1573 2344 3130 3929 4739 5560 6395 7243 8100 10295 12555 14875 17250 19675 22140 24640 27180 29740 32340 34950 37610 40260 42950 45650 48350 51090 53810 56560 59310 62070 64850 67640 70420 73220 76010 78810 81630 84450 55 636 1217 1800 2383 2967 3554 4147 4737 5329 5921 7401 8902 10415 11945 13490 15050 16630 18220 19835 21460 23100 24750 26430 28110 29810 31510 33220 34940 36670 38410 40160 41910 43670 45440 47210 49000 50780 52570 54370 60 650 1238 1832 2429 3029 3633 4241 4853 5468 6088 7655 9247 10865 12500 14160 15840 17535 19245 20970 22710 24460 26180 27990 29770 31560 33350 35160 36970 38790 40610 42440 44280 46120 47970 49830 51690 53560 55440 57310 75 882 1702 2541 3387 4251 5123 6014 6923 7827 8749 11180 13545 16015 18550 21150 23720 26390 29020 31700 34430 37180 39920 42690 45460 48270 51070 53900 56720 59560 62400 65260 68120 71000 73870 76760 79640 82540 85440 88350 44 Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Table 27 (Continued ) Substance T (K) CO CO2 H2O( g) NO NO2 N2 O2 SO2 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 56740 60380 64020 67680 71350 75020 78710 82410 86120 89830 93540 91450 97500 103570 109670 115790 121930 128080 134260 140440 146650 152860 72690 77830 83040 88290 93600 98960 104370 109810 115290 120810 126360 57860 61530 65220 68910 72610 76320 80040 83760 87490 91230 94980 87260 92910 98580 104260 109950 115650 121360 127080 132800 138540 144270 56160 59760 63380 67010 70660 74320 77990 81660 85360 89050 92750 59200 62990 66800 70630 74490 78370 82270 86200 90140 94110 98100 91250 97080 102930 108790 114670 120560 126460 132380 138300 144240 150180 a Converted and usually rounded off from JANAF Thermochemical Tables, NSRDS-NBS-37, 1971.

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