By I. E. S. Edwards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond
The current quantity starts with an account of what's recognized concerning the remotest geological a long time and includes chapters at the other kinds of proof referring to guy and his actual atmosphere as much as the top of the Predynastic interval in Egypt and the parallel levels of improvement in Mesopotamia, Persia, Anatolia, Palestine, Cyprus, Greece and the Islands. to track the heritage of those very early occasions it is crucial to depend mainly on fabric continues to be, when you consider that writing had no longer then been invented. The textual content bargains a environment opposed to which the cultural development of the old epoch should be considered. Archaeological research should be anticipated to carry to mild extra proof to fill a few of the current gaps in our wisdom, yet already it truly is transparent that the gulf among ancient and prehistorical instances in a lot of the traditional global is narrower than used to be intended.
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In Macedonia and Serbia some river gorges may have arisen as overflows from enclosed basins, but the gorge of the Piva through the culminating range of Durmitor in Montenegro and that of the Neretva through the lofty Cvrsnica in Hercegovina are clearly not of this class. They must represent old streamcourses of the Miocene landscape incised into what have since become the loftiest parts of the region. That movements of elevation continued to affect the periphery of the Mediterranean until Quaternary times is shown by such evidence as the elevation of the Lower Pliocene limestone known as the Piano Zancleano to as much as 1,200 m.
It is therefore followed here, but it should be noted that in the Notice explicative pour la carte tectonique international de I'Europe au 1/5,200,000, also published in Moscow in 1964, the preferred term is Variscan. 1 §111, 1. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 12 THE GEOLOGICAL AGES well be that at no other moment in Post-Cambrian time have the continents been so reduced in area by inundation. Whether the great Upper Cretaceous transgression from the Tethys onto both its borderlands was occasioned by a subsidence of those lands along their Tethyan margins with compensating elevations elsewhere, or whether some event took place within the Tethys itself that reduced its volume and spilled its waters upon the lands, we do not yet know.
This famous case is of particular interest since the rising of the mountains is known to have continued long enough to arch upwards the Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 30 T H E GEOLOGICAL AGES terraces of the river. Further north-west the Balkans are again transected by the Timok and at their eastern end there is a curious crossing by the Kamchiya. The great gorges of the Iron Gates may be accepted as having originated by overflow of the Pannonian Lake, and the straight trough that leads north from Orsova is a true rift valley with Miocene deposits on its floor.