By Yingjin Zhang
This advent to chinese language nationwide cinema covers 3 'Chinas': mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. ancient and comparative views convey out the parallel advancements in those 3 Chinas, whereas serious research explores thematic and stylistic alterations through the years. in addition to exploring creative achievements and ideological debates, Yingjin Zhang examines how - regardless of the pressures put on the from country keep watch over and inflexible censorship - chinese language nationwide cinema continues to be incapable of projecting a unmarried unified photo, yet really portrays many various Chinas.
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Additional info for Chinese National Cinema (National Cinemas Series.)
Note: All theaters are in Shanghai unless otherwise indicated. theater-drama and deliberately validated ‘play’ or ‘theater’ (xi) as foundational to Chinese ﬁlm practice. CINEMA AS ATTRACTIONS, 1896–1921 For foreign exhibitors and Chinese ﬁlmmakers alike, the primary concern in the initial phase was to attract the Chinese audience to Western shadowplays as an acceptable form of modern entertainment. Zhang Shichuan thus remembered his ﬁrst reaction to ﬁlmmaking in 1913: ‘since it is making shadow “plays”, I naturally associated it with traditional “plays” in China’ (ZDZ 16 N AT I O N A L T R A D I T I O N S , 1 8 9 6 – 1 9 2 9 1996a: 401).
1981: 1: 4–5). , ﬁlm or dianying, literally ‘electric shadows’) – thus foregrounds a conscientious effort of the Chinese to treat ﬁlm as historically related to and conceptually indebted to some kind of Chinese tradition. 2 million 1932 1932 1932 1932 1932 1936 1940 1941 1941 1942 1945 1948 Sources: Y. Ding 1998: 105–24; Du 1988: 7; Fu 1997: 72–7; Fu 1998: 91–9; Hou 1996: 199–218; Leyda 1972: 2–3; S. Li and Hu 1996: 104; Manzhou zazhi she, March–April 1941; ZDZ 1996a: 191–8, 1496, 1509, 1569. Note: All theaters are in Shanghai unless otherwise indicated.
They organized a ﬁlm company named ‘Great Wall’ based in Brooklyn, New York, and produced two documentaries introducing Chinese costumes and martial arts. After shipping their equipment to Shanghai in 1924, these patriots were disappointed by the dismal reality at home and wanted to intervene in social reform by means of ﬁlmmaking (ZDZ 1996a: 85–6). Their rationale for producing ‘problem ﬁlms’ was that, since China was fraught with various social problems in urgent need of solution, only by addressing these problems in ﬁlms could they achieve the objectives of ‘changing morale and criticizing society’ (J.