Download Climate Cover-Up: The Crusade to Deny Global Warming by James Hoggan PDF

By James Hoggan

Speak of world warming is almost inescapable nowadays — yet there are a few who think the concept that of weather switch is an difficult hoax. regardless of the enter of the world’s top weather scientists, the urgings of politicians, and the outcry of many grassroots activists, many american citizens proceed to disregard the symptoms of critical weather shifts. How did this take place? Climate Cover-up seeks to respond to this question, describing the pollsters and public faces who've crafted cautious language to refute the findings of environmental scientists. Exploring the PR concepts, phony "think tanks," and investment used to pervert clinical truth, this e-book serves as a take-heed call to those that nonetheless desire to deny the inconvenient fact.

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Cloud systems can easily cover an area S ≈ 106 km2 (Kondratyev and Binenko, 1984). So the total amount of water W = w S (for idealized clouds having the same LWP for the whole cloudy area) stored in such a water cloud system is equal approximately to 1011 kg, if we assume that w = 100 g/m2 , which is a typical value for cloudy media (see Fig. 6). ). 5. The continental cloud model (CCM) and the marine cloud model (MCM) proposed to be used in combination with Eq. 3). The cloud parameter a0 , μm μ N , cm−3 CCM MCM 4 6 250 6 6 100 100 90 80 coefficient of variance, % 70 60 50 40 Cloud C1 30 20 marine clouds continental clouds 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 effective radius, μm Fig.

This relation allows us to interpret Ae as the total scattered and absorbed power. 170) which is the extinction cross section introduced above. We see that the extinction or total losses are solely due to the interference of incident and scattered waves. This property allows us to find the value of Cext directly from the scattering amplitude avoiding calculations of energy absorbed by a particle. Let us show this. It follows for Cext (see Eqs. 171) where we used Eq. 165) and p means the projection of the correspondent vector on the direction specified by the vector n (see Eq.

Cumulus clouds may form clusters of about 3 km in diameter. The distances between clouds in a cluster range from about 200 to 300 m. Such groups can be 3–10 km apart. Fields of cumulus clouds typically occupy areas ranging from 104 to 105 km2 . Contrary to cumulus, stratocumulus clouds have horizontal dimensions of orders of magnitude greater than their vertical dimensions. In particular, it was found that such cloud systems can cover from 5 to 15 million km2 on average. 8. The cloud classification.

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