By Subramania Jayaraman Ph.D., Lawrence H. Lanzl Ph.D. (auth.)
This e-book offers an in-depth advent to radiotherapy physics. The emphasis in a lot of the paintings is at the scientific elements of the sector. Uniquely helpful for either the physicist and non-physicist, Clinical Radiotherapy Physics steadily and sequentially develops each one of its themes in transparent, concise language. It comprises vital mathematical analyses, but is written in order that those sections could be skipped, if wanted, with out compromising knowing. The e-book is split into seven elements masking uncomplicated physics (Parts I-II), gear for radiotherapy (Part III), radiation dosimetry (Parts IV-V), radiation therapy making plans (Part VI), and radiation safeguard and protective (Part VII). For radiation oncologists, radiation therapists, and medical physicists.
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1 Discovery of Natural Radioactivity In 1896, Henri Becquerel in Paris identiﬁed a ﬂuorescent compound of uranium which emitted penetrating radiation that produced a photographic image. C. Schmidt in Germany and Marie Curie in Paris found another element, thorium, with a similar emission. Soon afterwards, Marie and Pierre Curie identiﬁed two additional radiation-producing elements, polonium and radium. An unusual characteristic of these elements was that all of them emitted radiation. 1. A magnetic ﬁeld was applied perpendicular to the plane of the diagram.
The radioactive isotope 99m 43 Tc, which is widely used in medicine, is an 99m − example of such a state. 10) and becomes 43 Tc (where the letter m appended to the mass number implies a metastable condition). 99m 99 43 Tc subsequently becomes stable 43 Tc on emission of a 140-keV gamma photon. The 99m Tc is stable for a sufﬁciently long duration so that it can be separated chemically from Mo if needed. 2). Fig. 10. Decay scheme of molybdenum-99. The isomeric state of technetium-99m is shown. 8 Nuclear Fission In alpha or beta decay, the emitted particle has a small size and low mass compared to those of the nuclide.
The equations have a balance that conserves the following before and after the transition: (i) The total charge (given by positive charge minus negative charge) (ii) The number of nucleons (given by the sum of protons and neutrons) (iii) The number of leptons (given by the sum of leptons minus antileptons) The above conservation laws are effective in addition to the physical laws of conservation of mass-energy and momentum. The equations use the following notation for the different particles: 1n 0 1p 1 0 − −1 e 0 + 1e 0 0 νe 0 ¯e 0ν 4 He 2 0 0γ MX Z Neutron Proton Electron (also called β− particle) Positron (also called β+ particle) Electron-neutrino Electron-antineutrino Doubly ionized helium atom (also called α particle) Gamma photon A nuclide X with M nucleons that include Z protons In all of the above, the subscript gives the charge of the particle (in units of the charge of the positron), and the superscript gives the mass number of the particle (in units of the mass of a nucleon).