By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
Clouds impact the weather of the Earth, and they're a huge consider the elements. as a result, their radiative homes has to be understood in nice element. This publication summarizes present wisdom on cloud optical homes, for instance their skill to take in, transmit, and mirror gentle, which relies on the clouds’ geometrical and microphysical features comparable to sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and constructions. furthermore, difficulties on the topic of the picture move via clouds and cloud distant sensing are addressed during this publication in nice detail.
This publication will be a major resource of data on theoretical cloud optics for cloud physicists, meteorologists and optical engineers.
All easy principles of optics as concerning scattering of sunshine in clouds (e.g. Mie thought and radiative move) are thought of in a self constant approach. accordingly, the publication is also an invaluable textbook to beginners to the field.
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Extra resources for Cloud Optics
Cloud systems can easily cover an area S ≈ 106 km2 (Kondratyev and Binenko, 1984). So the total amount of water W = w S (for idealized clouds having the same LWP for the whole cloudy area) stored in such a water cloud system is equal approximately to 1011 kg, if we assume that w = 100 g/m2 , which is a typical value for cloudy media (see Fig. 6). ). 5. The continental cloud model (CCM) and the marine cloud model (MCM) proposed to be used in combination with Eq. 3). The cloud parameter a0 , μm μ N , cm−3 CCM MCM 4 6 250 6 6 100 100 90 80 coefficient of variance, % 70 60 50 40 Cloud C1 30 20 marine clouds continental clouds 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 effective radius, μm Fig.
This relation allows us to interpret Ae as the total scattered and absorbed power. 170) which is the extinction cross section introduced above. We see that the extinction or total losses are solely due to the interference of incident and scattered waves. This property allows us to find the value of Cext directly from the scattering amplitude avoiding calculations of energy absorbed by a particle. Let us show this. It follows for Cext (see Eqs. 171) where we used Eq. 165) and p means the projection of the correspondent vector on the direction specified by the vector n (see Eq.
Cumulus clouds may form clusters of about 3 km in diameter. The distances between clouds in a cluster range from about 200 to 300 m. Such groups can be 3–10 km apart. Fields of cumulus clouds typically occupy areas ranging from 104 to 105 km2 . Contrary to cumulus, stratocumulus clouds have horizontal dimensions of orders of magnitude greater than their vertical dimensions. In particular, it was found that such cloud systems can cover from 5 to 15 million km2 on average. 8. The cloud classification.