By Bram De Muer, Michiel Steyaert
CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizers begins with a accomplished advent to basic frequency synthesis. varied architectures and synthesizer development blocks are mentioned with their relative significance on synthesizer standards. the method of synthesizer specification derivation is illustrated with the DCS-1800 common as a basic try case. The ebook tackles the layout of fractional-N synthesizers in CMOS on circuit point in addition to approach point. The circuit point specializes in high-speed prescaler layout as much as 12 GHz in CMOS and on totally built-in, low-phase-noise LC-VCO layout. High-Q inductor integration and simulation in CMOS is elaborated and flicker noise minimization thoughts are awarded, starting from bias aspect option to noise filtering recommendations. On the next point, a scientific layout technique has been built that trades off all noise contributions and speedy dynamics for built-in capacitance (area). furthermore, a theoretical DeltaSigma part noise research is gifted, prolonged with a quick non-linear research approach to properly expect the effect of PLL non-linearities at the spectral purity of the DeltaSigma fractional-N frequency synthesizers.
Read Online or Download CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizers: Design for High Spectral Purity and Monolithic Integration (The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science) PDF
Best semiconductors books
This guide offers readers an in depth examine the complete expertise of printing very excessive solution and excessive density built-in circuit (IC) styles into skinny face up to technique move coatings? ?including optical lithography, electron beam, ion beam, and x-ray lithography. The book's major subject is the specified printing technique had to in achieving quantity excessive density IC chip construction, specifically within the Dynamic Random entry reminiscence (DRAM) undefined.
Magnetic fabrics is a superb advent to the fundamentals of magnetism, magnetic fabrics and their purposes in glossy gadget applied sciences. maintaining the concise form of the unique, this version has been completely revised to handle major advancements within the box, together with the enhanced knowing of simple magnetic phenomena, new sessions of fabrics, and adjustments to machine paradigms.
Glossy fabrication ideas have made it attainable to provide semiconductor units whose dimensions are so small that quantum mechanical results dominate their habit. This ebook describes the major components of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and solid-state physics which are beneficial in knowing those sleek semiconductor units.
A massive present problem for semiconductor units is to improve fabrics for the subsequent iteration of optical communique structures and solar energy conversion functions. lately, vast learn has printed that an advent of just a couple of chances of nitrogen into III-V semiconductor lattice results in a dramatic relief of the band hole.
- Semiconductor Physics: An Introduction
- Strain Effect in Semiconductors: Theory and Device Applications
- Handbook of Nanoscale Optics and Electronics
- Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes: The role of the PN junction
- Thin Film Deposition
- Selected Works Of Professor Herbert Kroemer
Additional info for CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizers: Design for High Spectral Purity and Monolithic Integration (The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science)
It converts the high oscillator output frequency to lower frequency which can be compared to the clean Xtal reference source. A frequency divider is basically a counter, whose output state changes after it has counted a predefined number of input periods. The simplest divider is a flipflop, which performs a divideby-2 operation on the input frequency. The functional input of the flipflop for frequency division is the clock input. 4 Introduction to PLL building blocks 37 outputs are fed to the clock input of the next divider.
The design of a monolithic frequency synthesizer fits into a broader picture: the development of a fully integrated transceiver front-end for high-quality digital communication systems, shown 42 On Frequency Synthesis in Fig. 19; By combining the fractional-N synthesizer with a low-IF receiver and a direct upconversion transmitter, the total front-end can be integrated on a single die. e. transmission and reception never occurs at the same time. Therefore, the frequency synthesizer can be shared by the receive and the transmit path, leading to area and power savings.
Since it is a phase-locked loop, the input and output variables of the PLL are phases. In Fig. 2 (a), the basic block diagram of the PLL with its state variables is shown. e. When in lock, the output of the PD is a voltage proportional to the phase difference between the inputs: with the phase detector gain in volts per radian. The phase error voltage is filtered by the loop filter, which normally has low-pass transfer characteristic. e. the unwanted AC components, are suppressed; In addition, the loop filter determines the dynamic performance of the loop.