Download CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizers: Design for High Spectral by Bram De Muer, Michiel Steyaert PDF

By Bram De Muer, Michiel Steyaert

CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizers begins with a accomplished advent to basic frequency synthesis. varied architectures and synthesizer development blocks are mentioned with their relative significance on synthesizer standards. the method of synthesizer specification derivation is illustrated with the DCS-1800 common as a basic try case. The ebook tackles the layout of fractional-N synthesizers in CMOS on circuit point in addition to approach point. The circuit point specializes in high-speed prescaler layout as much as 12 GHz in CMOS and on totally built-in, low-phase-noise LC-VCO layout. High-Q inductor integration and simulation in CMOS is elaborated and flicker noise minimization thoughts are awarded, starting from bias aspect option to noise filtering recommendations. On the next point, a scientific layout technique has been built that trades off all noise contributions and speedy dynamics for built-in capacitance (area). furthermore, a theoretical DeltaSigma part noise research is gifted, prolonged with a quick non-linear research approach to properly expect the effect of PLL non-linearities at the spectral purity of the DeltaSigma fractional-N frequency synthesizers.

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Additional info for CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizers: Design for High Spectral Purity and Monolithic Integration (The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science)

Sample text

It converts the high oscillator output frequency to lower frequency which can be compared to the clean Xtal reference source. A frequency divider is basically a counter, whose output state changes after it has counted a predefined number of input periods. The simplest divider is a flipflop, which performs a divideby-2 operation on the input frequency. The functional input of the flipflop for frequency division is the clock input. 4 Introduction to PLL building blocks 37 outputs are fed to the clock input of the next divider.

The design of a monolithic frequency synthesizer fits into a broader picture: the development of a fully integrated transceiver front-end for high-quality digital communication systems, shown 42 On Frequency Synthesis in Fig. 19; By combining the fractional-N synthesizer with a low-IF receiver and a direct upconversion transmitter, the total front-end can be integrated on a single die. e. transmission and reception never occurs at the same time. Therefore, the frequency synthesizer can be shared by the receive and the transmit path, leading to area and power savings.

Since it is a phase-locked loop, the input and output variables of the PLL are phases. In Fig. 2 (a), the basic block diagram of the PLL with its state variables is shown. e. When in lock, the output of the PD is a voltage proportional to the phase difference between the inputs: with the phase detector gain in volts per radian. The phase error voltage is filtered by the loop filter, which normally has low-pass transfer characteristic. e. the unwanted AC components, are suppressed; In addition, the loop filter determines the dynamic performance of the loop.

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