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Additional info for Computational welding mechanics
Basically Christensen defines a non-dimensional operating parameter and non-dimensional coordinate systems. Using these expressions, the weld pool dimensions can be estimated. The non-dimensional Christensen method was used to fix the ellipsoidal flux distribution parameters for the thick section bead on plate weld shown in Figure 2-19. The cross-sectional dimensions were reported by Chong, and the half-width dimension was applied to the flux distance in front of the electron beam heat source while 50 Computational Welding Mechanics the twice-width distance was applied behind the EB.
Figure 2-15 shows brick and shell elements and the transformation of a brick element to a transition element. The element is called a Shell-Brick transition element. It is not really a new element but a brick with constraints according to the shell assumption. It has more flexibility and can be added to other FEM packages without altering the original code. Figure 2-16: This tee joint is modeled with 4 noded thermal shell elements far from the weld joint, 8 noded 3D brick elements at the weld joint and special transition elements to join the shell and brick elements.
Figure 2-23 shows the density for some steels as a function of temperature. Computer Simulation of' Welding Processes Mild and low 0 200 400 600 Temperature T 800 "C 11 Figure 2-23: Density of some steels as function of temperature; from [71 and 31. As shown in Figure 2-9 there are four characteristic length parameters that must be determined. Physically these parameters are the radial dimensions of the molten zone in front, behind, to the side and underneath the arc. If the cross-section of the molten zone is known from experiment, these data may be used to fix the heat source dimensions.