By Erik Dubberke, Curtis Donskey
Clostridium difficile has joined the ranks of the great insects which are frequently proof against antimicrobials and are flourishing in hospitals and long term care amenities. This new instruction manual, written by way of top infectious sickness specialists, examines the epidemiology of C difficile an infection, its expanding incidence around the world, and the choices for therapy and prevention. The practice-based guide comprises the most recent information regarding surveillance innovations and powerful cures.
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Extra info for Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Clostridium difficile Infection
37. Merrigan M, Venugopal A, Mallozzi M, et al: Human hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains exhibit increased sporulation as well as robust toxin production. J Bacteriol 2010;192:4904-4911. 38. Burns DA, Heap JT, Minton NP: The diverse sporulation characteristics of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates are not associated with type. Anaerobe 2010;16:618-622. 39. Warny M, Pépin J, Fang A, et al: Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe.
31 1 2. C difficile is an ubiquitous organism, but people are much more likely to become colonized and develop symptomatic CDI while in a health-care setting. 3. It is important to think of CDI as a cause of diarrhea in the community, even in the absence of recent antimicrobial exposures, especially if the patient has persistent diarrhea, blood in the stool, fevers, or a high white count. 4. CDI is rare in neonates, who are commonly colonized with C difficile but may be a source of transmission to the mother.
16. Tasteyre A, Barc MC, Collignon A, et al: Role of FliC and FliD flagellar proteins of Clostridium difficile in adherence and gut colonization. Infect Immun 2001;69:7937-7940. 17. Denève C, Delomenie C, Barc MC, et al: Antibiotics involved in Clostridium difficile-associated disease increase colonization factor gene expression. J Med Microbiol 2008;57(pt 6):732-738. 18. Geric B, Carman RJ, Rupnik M, et al: Binary toxin-producing, large clostridial toxin-negative Clostridium difficile strains are enterotoxic but do not cause disease in hamsters.