Download Contemporary Theories of Knowledge by Joseph Cruz PDF

By Joseph Cruz

This new version of the vintage modern Theories of information has been considerably up to date to incorporate analyses of the new literature in epistemology. instead of only making moderate amendments to the 1st version, Pollock and Cruz have undertaken a groundbreaking evaluation of twentieth-century epistemology. This e-book is either a complicated textbook providing conventional discussions of foundationalism, coherentism, and reliabilism and a close treatise at the authors' personal specific view, direct realism.

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The additional sophistications that this requires are not relevant to the present discussion, so we will ignore them for now. 39. To accommodate belief in epistemologically basic propositions, we can think of such a proposition in isolation as comprising a one-line argument and take this as the limiting case of an argument supporting a proposition. 1 Defeat of one argument by another To handle defeasibility in a general way, we must recognize that arguments can defeat one another and that a defeated argument can be reinstated if the arguments defeating it are defeated in turn.

The traditional problem of induction is HumeÕs problem, discussed above. Hume took his problem to be that of answering the skeptic Ña task at which he confessed defeat. In light of our earlier discussion of the role of skeptical arguments in contemporary epistemology, we can dismiss the traditional problem in the form given it by Hume. There is neither a need nor the possibility of proving the skeptic wrong. You can Robert Squires (1969). 20 CHAPTER ONE never prove the skeptic wrong because he does not leave you with enough ammunition to undertake such a task.

Obviously, that gives you no reason to believe that all ravens have been observed. Other 24. This view was endorsed and popularized by P. F. Strawson (1952). Pollock defended it in his (1974), but has since rejected it for the reasons described here. Ê Pollock (1984a) has argued that this is indeed the correct explanation for the complexity surrounding inductive reasoning. THE PROBLEMS OF KNOWLEDGE 21 examples can be constructed using disjunctions. Suppose, for example, that you would like to confirm inductively that all moose have whiskers.

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