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By Joseph Margolis

Culture and Cultural Entities provides an unique philosophical research of the character and rationalization of cultural phenomena, with specified consciousness to ontology and method. It addresses extensive such themes as: the relation among actual and organic nature and cultural phenomena; the research of intentionality; the character and clarification of motion; causality; causal rationalization and the team spirit of technology; theories of language; historicity; animal and human intelligence; mental and social phenomena; expertise and evolution. Its strategy contains a kind of non-reductive materialism, examines a variety of perspectives, and is very readable, making it appropriate for execs, complex undergraduate and graduate scholars, and an educated common viewers. a brand new bankruptcy used to be further to provide a feeling of pertinent developments because the visual appeal of the 1st version, fairly with appreciate to the background of philosophy, pragmatism, the harmony of technology, and evolution. The solidarity, scope, and ease of the idea are well-regarded.

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Nevertheless, although animals lacking language can be ascribed consciousness and mental states only in a way that is linguistically modelled, we are not thereby driven to hold that those ascriptions are merely heuristic. On the contrary, it is entirely reasonable to claim that at least the higher mammals actually possess mental states of some sort. The form of the ascription of mental states to animals is heuristic, in the sense, precisely, that the ascriptions are linguistically modeled; but the mental states themselves are realistically attributed to the higher animals – on the strength of our explanatory needs.

Variations and idiosyncratic limitations may appear in the lives of particular individuals (for instance, among the insane), but the model is invoked to explain the viability of the species itself. In short, the ascription of particular mental states and particular actions is intelligible only on the assumption that they fit congruently among an entire network of related states and actions. There are no atomic perceptions or beliefs. To determine that a mental state or psychologically informed action obtains is to view the life of an organism under the model of some suitably species-specific rationality.

E. Shannon and W. Weaver, Mathematical Theory of Communication (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1949); and Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings; Cybernetics and Society (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954). 18 See N. ) (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970). 19 See Kenneth Sayre, Cybernetics and the Philosophy and Mind (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976); and Hubert L. Dreyfus, What Computers Can’t Do (New York: Harper and Row, 1972); Boden, loc. cit. 20 Hilary Putnam, ‘The Nature of Mental States’, in Philosophical Papers, Vol.

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