By Max Glaskin
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Extra info for Cycling Science: How Rider and Machine Work Together
Suspension and oxygen intake d Gimme air Suspension brings a particular advantage to the rough-terrain rider—reduced oxygen usage. The oxygen demanded by the rider is an indication of the effort needed to ride a bike. 14 Suspension on rough terrain 350 300 Vertical force on front tire (lb) Does suspension make a significant difference to efficiency? 7 Min 22 Min 21 Bumps Smooth Full suspension 59 What are selfstabilizing dynamics? How does a bicycle keep itself upright? How self-stabilizing works Caster effect and gyroscopic forces Direction of travel Direction of travel Forward motion This is the greatest unsolved mystery of cycling.
174 ft/s2). 2 m) experiences a centripetal force of over 90 lb (406 N). This is the force that keeps bike and rider on the curve instead of shooting off the road in a straight line. Angle of lean: In an idealized situation, the angle of lean is given by: ( ) 2 θ = arctan mv r Gravity Center of turn Friction between tires and ground where: θ = angle of lean (°) m = mass of bike and rider (slugs) v = forward speed (ft/s) r = radius of turn (ft) Radius of turn How countersteering works a Steer and countersteer The key point is that it is necessary to unbalance a moving bicycle to change its direction in a controlled manner.
Polymers are also crucial for some carbon fiber frames, disc wheels, and rims. Saddle skin Brake hood Headset seal Tire Cable sleeve Inner tube Handlebar tape Polymer properties such as strength and melting point can be dramatically different from the properties of their monomers, and they also depend on the length of the chains. Certain key properties such as elasticity and resistance to breakage are enhanced when these chains get entangled, like spaghetti in a bowl. Fillers, reinforcements, and additives are introduced to refine these properties, but the secret of polymer behavior— typically recovering undamaged from compressive, tensile, and torsional loads—is the length of their chains.