By International Atomic Energy Agency
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Extra info for Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and research reactors
16. There are many available dismantling techniques applicable to reactor decommissioning. Each technique carries some advantages as well as some disadvantages in comparison with others. For example, where remote dismantling is necessary owing to fields of high radiation, thermal cutting methods allow the use of relatively simple holding mechanisms. However, these methods generate large quantities of radioactive aerosols requiring local ventilation with filtration systems; this results in the generation of secondary wastes.
27. Transport of radioactive waste off-site should conform to national regulations. International recommendations on transport of radioactive material are provided in Ref. . 28. The management and staff involved in the decommissioning project should be made aware of and trained, if necessary, in the methods of minimizing the waste generated in the tasks assigned. Such methods include installation of contamination control tents, containment of spills, and segregation of radioactively contaminated wastes from those wastes that are not radioactively contaminated.
Hazardous materials such as asbestos require special consideration to prevent harm to human health. Substances such as oils found in nuclear reactors in general, or sodium residues found in fast breeder reactors, may present significant risk of fire or explosion which has to be dealt with in an appropriate manner. 4. The removal of spent fuel from the reactor installation at the end of its operational lifetime should preferably be performed as part of operations or as one of the initial activities in decommissioning.