By John G. Gagliardo
German background within the 17th and eighteenth centuries is notoriously inaccessible to non-specialists. while different ecu nations have been good in order to changing into kingdom states, Germany remained frozen as a territorially-fragmented, politically and religiously-divided society. The fulfillment of this significant contribution to the hot heritage of Germany is to do justice to the range and multiplicity of the interval with out foundering less than the wealth of data it conveys.
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Extra info for Germany under the Old Regime, 1600-1790
But while the situation was indeed serious, it was kept from being fatal by a number of factors, first anlong which was the inability of the Bohemians to attract enough assistance from outside to strike a mortal blow either at the decisive early moment or, as it turned out, at any time thereafter. The rebels' own resources were much more scanty and their political organization and cooperation much less effective, over the long term, than the ease with which they achieved their initial successes might suggest.
No one, perhaps, put much stock in the military efficacy of such small Protestant units as had escaped Bohemia to the east to join up with the ever-unreliable Bethlen Gabor, whose annoying presence to the Habsburgs in Hungary was in any case temporarily neutralized at the peace table in January 1622. But more considerable forces under Ernst von Mansfeld, who in the meantime had formally signed himself into Friedrich V's service, had also successfully withdrawn into the Upper Palatinate; and although they were pursued and dislodged from there in the fall of 1621 by Maximilian and his general Tilly, who then occupied the territory, Mansfeld was able to blunder his way into the Rhenish Palatinate and to cross the Rhine into Alsace.
Donauworth, henceforth only a Bavarian territorial city, was quickly reCatholicized with the eager and efficient assistance of the Jesuits. With these latest ill tidings barely digested, the Protestant princes approached the imperial diet convoked at Regensburg in early 1608 in a mood of anger and frustration. While the actions against Donauworth seemed to them plainly illegal, it was even more important that a militant Catholicism had pushed forward onto entirely new ground. They therefore demanded an imperial reconfirmation of the terms of the Peace of Augsburg as the first order of business.